It lies at the intersection of roads from Addis Ababa, Harer, and Djibouti and has an airport. Dire Dawa, for long a caravan centre, developed as the chief outlet for Harer trade after 1904, when it became the terminus of the railroad from the port ofDjibouti (since extended to Addis Ababa). The Dachatu River, whose bed can be crossed on foot during the dry season, divides the city into modern and old quarters. The former, built by the French, contains a Coptic church and a royal palace. Within the old quarter are a mosque and a large Muslim cemetery. Grain is imported from the highlands to the south because the dry fields around Dire Dawa (which means “empty plain”) yield little to cultivation. The city has railway workshops, textile and cement factories, and coffee- and meat-canning plants and trades in coffee and hides. Most of its inhabitants are Oromo, Somali, orAmhara people. Nearby are caves decorated with prehistoric paintings. Pop. (2007) 342,827.